Department of Communication, Language, and Literature

Mission

Since scholars in the ancient world studied the Iliad, when Talmudic scholars studied the Torah, or as we translate the stories of indigenous peoples, the studies of language, literature, and cultures have been connected nearly seamlessly. Texts are alive in many media: the ways we build our homes, the ways we speak with each other, the ways we rear our children, the ways we approach the divine. In this department we seek to maintain these connections and encourage the studies of the way we talk, write, think, create, and live to enrich and inform one another in a challenging, nurturing, and vibrant environment. If a student likes to read, write, listen, create as a community of poets, scholars, travelers, and adventurers, this can be their academic home.

Faculty

David Adkins, Catherine Becker (Department Chair), Darrin Grinder, Julie Straight

Student Learning Outcomes

  1. Students will think critically, express themselves clearly, research successfully, and demonstrate an appreciation for the medium of language (Transformation).
  2. Students will read and engage with Western and world literature, including canons and alternative canons (Truth).
  3. Students will demonstrate a concrete knowledge of authors and their literary works, articulating the author and work's place in the culture from which they arose and in the literary world as a whole (Truth).

Degrees and Certificates

Courses

COMM1010: Introduction to Communication

Credits 3

An introduction to the foundations of the field of communication and the communication process. Topics will focus on varied areas of communication, communication theories, and how communication affects society and research in the field.

COMM1050: Nonverbal Communication in Culture

Credits 1

An exploration of the role of nonverbal artifacts such as food, music, dance, costume, and color in reflecting cultural values and practices. This brief course includes mandatory all-day attendance at the Folklife Fair at the Trailing of the Sheep Festival in Hailey, Idaho. In one class period before and one class after the fair, students will discuss the parts of nonverbal communication that are especially highlighted by this cultural event and what makes the profession of sheepherding share behaviors and norms across cultures. Class will be a combination of discussion, class activities, and some lecture. A five-page paper is required to complete the course. Fulfills a General Education Cultural Competency (CC) requirement.

COMM1210: Introduction to Public Speaking

Credits 3

An introduction to verbal communication, listening, and public speaking. Emphasis will be placed on speaking, delivery issues, speech construction, audience connection, and the communication process. Students will write and deliver a variety of speeches and learn to speak with "clarity, coherence, and persuasiveness." This course satisfies the NNU General Education Speech outcome with a grade of C- or higher.

COMM1310: Oral Interpretation

Credits 3

This course is an introduction to the intellectual, emotional, and aesthetic aspects of literature. Emphasis is placed on analysis and presentation of literature as it communicates to the listener. Performances include prose, poetry, and drama.

COMM2010: Small Group Communication

Credits 3

An approach to small group communication theory with emphasis on identifying and developing appropriate communication strategies for various group situations. The course focuses on the principles and processes of small group communication, attitudes and skills for effective participation and leadership in small groups, small group problem solving, and decision-making. The primary goal of this course is to apply concepts learned through reading and discussion to practical situations in a small group setting.

COMM2020: Media Systems and Literacy

Credits 3

A study of the history, structures, technologies, genres, theories and influences of the mass media on individuals and society. Designed to prepare students to be media literate, critical, and responsible producers and consumers of the mass media.

COMM2030: Interpersonal Communication

Credits 3

Interpersonal Communication is the study of theories and practice in verbal and nonverbal communication with a focus on interpersonal relationships. Emphasis is on improving interpersonal skills and increasing communication competence in everyday social exchanges. Topics include perception, listening, online relationships, friendships, and family relationships. This course satisfies a General Education Social Science requirement.

COMM2120: Communication Activities

Credits 0 2

Opportunities for Communication majors as well as non-majors to prepare for and participate in a variety of communication activities approved by the department. Class instruction focuses on competitive speech and debate. Students may complete other approved independent work for class participation hours. May be repeated for credit.

Prerequisites

Instructor's approval

COMM2420: Introduction to Public Relations

Credits 3

An introduction to the theory, research, and practical aspects of public relations. Emphasis will be placed on understanding and preparing strategic plans and how public relations function in business, industrial, educational and social organizations.

COMM2950: Internship in Communication

Credits 1 3

Supervised internship or research in communication. A student may complete an approved professional internship with 50 clock hours per credit required. Internships must be related to an area of communication and have a qualified mentor or supervisor. The internship is designed to be a learning opportunity for the student, as well as a benefit to the outside organization. This activity concludes with a formal written and oral presentation. May be repeated for credit upon approval by the advisor. 

Prerequisites

All internships must be pre-approved by the department internship director. 

COMM3020: Organizational Communication

Credits 3

The study of the nature and function of communication within the organization. Emphasis will be on group process, networks, discussion, decision-making, message creation and organizational climate and culture. The course is designed to enhance your understanding of the role of communication in modern organizations, explore approaches and theories of organizational communication and leadership, identify common organizational communication problems and their solutions, and develop attitudes and analytical abilities that can enhance your ability to navigate modern organizations in a creative, effective and ethical way. 

COMM3050: Nonverbal Communication

Credits 3

The study of the types and effects of nonverbal communication in our lives including: touch, space, physical appearance, movement, facial expression, vocalics, and artifacts. Emphasis will be placed on nonverbal theories and research on nonverbal communication in interpersonal interaction.

Prerequisite Courses

COMM3094: Special Topics in Communication

Credits 1 3

A concentrated study of one area in the field of communication. Examples include but are not limited to Sports Communication, Relational Communication, Leadership Communication, and Conflict Negotiation Communication. May be repeated for credit.

Prerequisites

Instructor's approval

COMM3120: Advanced Communication Activities

Credits 0 2

Advanced opportunities for students majoring in areas of communication arts & science, as well as non-majors, to participate in a variety of communication activities approved by the department. Class instruction focuses on competitive speech and debate. Students may complete approved independent work for class participation hours. May be repeated for credit.

Prerequisites

COMM2120, or instructor's approval.

COMM3200: Intercultural Communication

Credits 3

This course introduces students to the complex field of intercultural communication by looking at the practical applications of theory and research from critical, cultural, and social scientific perspectives. The course explores challenges of intercultural interaction and relationships in a number of contexts. Topics include individual perceptions, communication and culture, the role of linguistic differences, dimensions of culture, stereotyping and prejudice, adaptation to new cultures, and culture shock. A combination of theory, application, and experience will be included. Successful completion of the course requires students to engage in at least 15 hours of contact with individuals who are from international cultures other than their own. Fulfills a General Education Cultural Experience (CE) requirement.

COMM3210: Advanced Public Speaking

Credits 3

A course designed to enable students to improve their public speaking techniques beyond basic skills. Emphasis will be placed both on skill development and speaking outside of the classroom in more professional settings. This satisfies the NNU General Education Speech outcome with a grade of C- or higher. 

Prerequisites

COMM3211, COMM1210, or instructor's approval.

COMM3211: Technical Communication for Scientists & Engineers

Credits 3

An introduction to verbal communication in groups, listening, and public speaking focused on the unique challenges of public speaking for those in technical and scientific fields. Emphasis will be placed on speaking, delivery issues, speech construction, audience connection, and the communication process. Recommended for students who have completed at least 12 credits in their major field. This course meets the NNU General Education Speech outcome with a grade of C- or higher.

Prerequisites

Junior classification or Instructor's approval

COMM3240: Public Relations Writing

Credits 3

Designed for Public Relations (PR) majors to meet the expectations of the Public Relations Society of America for PR education, this course engages students in a variety of PR-specific writing skills. Includes study, critique, and editing of both student and professional work.

COMM3420: Persuasion

Credits 3

A practical and theoretical approach to the study of psychological and rhetorical principles vital to influencing human behavior. Topics include major social science theoretical perspectives, expertise, trustworthiness, likability, use of emotions, and sequencing of messages.

COMM3500: Argumentation and Debate

Credits 3

Theory and practice of argumentation and debate including research, analysis, reasoning, evidence, preparation of briefs, organization, and delivery. Intercollegiate tournament participation is encouraged, but not required.

COMM3600: Broadcast Communication

Credits 3

A skills-based class designed to help the student practice the skills required for communicating through the broadcast media in areas such as press conferences, reporting, online media, newsroom situations, podcasting, and sports broadcasting. 

COMM4094: Special Topics in Communication Studies

Credits 1 3

A concentrated study of one area in the field of communication. Examples include but are not limited to Sports Communication, Relational Communication, Leadership Communication, and Conflict Negotiation Communication. May be repeated for credit.

Prerequisites

Instructor's approval

COMM4420: Advanced Public Relations

Credits 3

An in-depth study of the theory and practice of public relations in the U.S. Emphasis will be placed on analyzing and assessing case studies in public relations problems and in designing and executing a professional public relations campaign. Students will engage in reading, criticism, analysis, and design activities.

Prerequisites

COMM2420, or instructor's approval.

COMM4440: Rhetorical Theory and Criticism

Credits 3

Explores classical and modern perspectives of rhetoric. Includes a study of classical and modern rhetoricians and their contributions to the art of rhetoric.

COMM4610: Communication Research and Theory

Credits 3

Study of communication theories and the influence of communication on individuals and society. This course includes a survey of selected topics, research designs and methods in communication. The course culminates with a mix of original student papers and group research projects.

COMM4630: Communication Ethics

Credits 3

An ethics course designed specifically for the unique challenges and situations faced by communication experts in the fields of public relations, health communication, broadcasting, communication research, and other related fields. Students will encounter multiple scenarios, case studies of actual situations, and practice responding to ethically difficult situations.

COMM4640: Health Communication

Credits 3

A study of the field of health communication. The course will employ case studies, lecture, discussion, and experiential learning. Relevant theory, research, and skills associated with communicating in various care contexts will be addressed. This will include communication among providers, family caregivers, patients, healthcare organizations, and in mediated messages. Issues related to marketing and promotion of health information and the politics of health care will be covered.

COMM4950: Internship in Communication

Credits 1 3

Supervised internship or research in communication. A student may complete an approved professional internship with 50 clock hours per credit required. Internships must be related to an area of communication and have a qualified mentor or supervisor. The internship is designed to be a learning opportunity for the student, as well as a benefit to the outside organization. This activity concludes with a formal written and oral presentation. May be repeated for credit upon approval by the advisor. 

Prerequisites

All internships must be pre-approved by departmental internship director. 

COMM4970: Senior Project

Credits 1 2

This course is designed to allow students to conduct a self-directed project resulting in an original work related to their specific areas of communication studies. This outcome could include (but is not limited to) conducting a full research study, preparing a public relations plan for an outside client, designing a health campaign, and/or writing a major paper. This process culminates with a public senior defense of the work produced. Required of all majors in the department with the exception of co-majors and pre-counseling majors. This course may be repeated for credit.

COMM4980: Senior Capstone Seminar in Communication

Credits 1

A senior level course that reviews the university outcomes and major theories and research methods of the field of communication and prepares the student for a future in communication professions. Other topics include a review of the student's senior project, resume building, interviewing techniques, development of student portfolio, and preparation for graduate school. This course can be taken by students not majoring in an area of Communication Studies but must have instructor permission. Satisfies the General Education Capstone requirement.

ELWR1061: Academic Language Acquisition

Credits 3
This course integrates academic listening strategies, note-taking and academic discussion in addition to other preparation to give English as a Second Language (ESL) students the skills required to fully participate in the university classroom. A general academic vocabulary list taught through listening activities aids students' acquisition of frequently-used terms in an undergraduate course level context.
Prerequisites
A TOEFL IBT score of 60/IELTS score of 5.0 or higher.

ELWR1062: Academic Language Acquisition II

Credits 3
This course is a continuation of Academic Language Acquisition I. The course integrates academic listening strategies, note-taking and academic discussion in addition to other preparation to give ESL students the skills required to fully participate in the university classroom. The professor tailors the course to emphasize words and constructions frequently used in the students' major areas of study.
Prerequisites
ELWR1061, or instructor's approval.

ELWR1063: Course-specific Language Support

Credits 3
This adjunct model course links to a traditional undergraduate content course. The goal of this course is to provide ESL students the language skills and study strategies that can be further applied to other undergraduate courses. Particular focus will be given to the following skills: identifying the main idea of a passage, skimming the reading content, taking appropriate lecture notes, and writing succinct summaries. May be repeated once for credit.

ENGL1040: Introduction to Academic Writing

Credits 3

Recommendation: Students should take this course in their first year.

A course that introduces students to the rigors of academic writing. Key elements include practicing the critical reading and summary of texts; finding and using evidence correctly; developing lines of inquiry; analyzing complex claims; and applying the rhetorical strategies that lead to successful academic writing. Students will also develop a metacognitive understanding of their reading, writing, and thinking processes.

 

ENGL2120: English Grammar and Usage

Credits 2
A systematic review of the principles and practice of traditional English grammar and usage conventions. An introduction to morphology and phonology is provided.

ENGL2122: English Grammar and Usage/Linguistics and History

Credits 3
A systematic review of the principles and practice of traditional English grammar and usage conventions. An introduction to morphology and phonology is provided. This course will also introduce students to linguistic theory and the history of the English language, particularly as recorded throughout English literature. This course is taught partially with ENGL2120 and is offered yearly.

ENGL2610W: Introduction to Journalism

Credits 3

This course will teach students basic reporting and news writing skills, focusing on Associated Press writing style. Additionally, students will be introduced to the best journalism practices dealing with news value and judgment.

Prerequisites

ENGL1040 or HNRS2560, with a grade of C- or better

ENGL2980: Introduction to the Study of Literature

Credits 1
An introduction to the basic approaches of literary study. Although open to all students, it is designed to serve as a cohesive agent for the major program. It is required of all majors in the English department. Recommended for the sophomore year.
Prerequisites
3 credits in literature.

ENGL300#W: Studies in Composition and Rhetoric

Credits 3

Building on the analytical, research, and writing skills gained in ENGL1040, students will strengthen their ability to write critically, engagingly, and knowledgeably to a specific audience. Courses will be offered as topics courses and are designated in the course bulletin with a letter before the W.

Prerequisites

ENGL3010: Teaching English in the Secondary School

Credits 3
Strategies for teaching literature, grammar, writing and other communication skills necessary to effectively teach secondary English. Emphasis will be placed on teaching strategies to correspond with ELA standards and unit planning at a secondary level. Field Experience: 20-40 hours. (See EDUC3010.)
Prerequisites
Program admission required.

ENGL3020W: Principles of Writing

Credits 3

An advanced writing course emphasizing the thinking and writing skills necessary to develop an effective prose style. A general course appropriate for advanced students in any area, it is especially recommended for potential graduate students. This course fulfills the general-education "W" requirement.

Prerequisites

ENGL1040 or HNRS2560 with a grade of C- or better.

ENGL3040W: Creative Writing - Prose

Credits 3

Principles, techniques, and practice in writing both fiction and non-fiction, including small-group work, critique, and revision. This course fulfills the general-education "W" requirement.

Prerequisites

ENGL1040 or HNRS2560 with a grade of C- or better.

ENGL3050: Creative Writing - Poetry

Credits 3

Principles, techniques, and practice in writing poems. Emphasis on individual writing and small-group activities. ENGL2050 recommended prior to taking this course.

ENGL3070W: Professional and Technical Writing

Credits 3

Students will analyze audience, persuasion strategies, and communication ethics in this course. Emphasis is on document design, effective use of graphics, working collaboratively, and oral presentation. Students will produce formal business documents such as memos, reports, and proposals.

 

Prerequisites

ENGL1040 or HNRS2560 with a grade of C- or better.

ENGL3090: Pedagogy of Writing in 6-12 Schools

Credits 3

An examination and application of research-based methodologies for teaching the writing process. Candidates learn how to incorporate the writing process across all content areas. Focus is on creating authentic writing opportunities that encompass a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. This course meets a portion of the Idaho Comprehensive Literacy Coursework requirements of the Idaho Department of Education. (See EDUC3090)

Prerequisites

Junior classification, program admission required.

ENGL3120: Linguistics: Structure and History of English

Credits 3
An investigation of both traditional and transformational descriptions of English with special attention to the contribution of structural linguistics to modern understanding of the operation of language. Course will also include a study of the history of the English language from the early backgrounds to Old English to modern American English.

ENGL3210: Major Authors in American Literature

Credits 3
A study of selected works of a major American author or authors. Course topics may vary by semester. Some examples of topics are: variations on the American Dream, doctors in literature, literature of the sea, small-town America, and American travel literature. May be repeated for credit.

ENGL3250: The American Novel

Credits 3
A study of the development of the American novel through reading and discussing important novels by American authors.

ENGL3310: Major Authors in British Literature

Credits 3
A study of selected works of a major British author or authors. Some examples of course topics are: faith and doubt in British literature, British fantasy from Swift to Tolkien, and poetry of the Brownings. May be repeated for credit.

ENGL3320W: Shakespeare

Credits 3

A study of representative plays through reading, viewing, and discussing comedies, tragedies, and histories. This course fulfills the general-education "W" requirement.

Prerequisites

ENGL1040 or HNRS2560 with a grade of C- or better.

ENGL3350: The British Novel

Credits 3
A study of the development of the British novel through reading and discussing important novels by British authors.

ENGL3420: Literature in Translation

Credits 3
Major works of a foreign country or other geographic area (not the United States or Great Britain) will be studied in English translation. Some examples of course topics are twentieth century European literature, literature of the Far and Near East, Latin-American literature, literature of the African diaspora, or literature of European existentialism. The course topics may also focus on the works of a major author in translation. May be repeated for credit.

ENGL3750: Children's and Young Adult Literature

Credits 3

A study of literature written for children and young adults, from preschool age onward. The course samples a variety of types of literature and will prove valuable for general students, prospective teachers, or parents who wish to enrich their own background in children's and young adult literature and to develop qualitative judgment skills.

ENGL3910: Literary Theory and Criticism

Credits 3
The study and application of representative literary criticisms from Plato to the present. It is required of English and English-education majors and recommended for the junior year.
Prerequisites
9 credits in literature.

ENGL3960: Internship in Professional Writing

Credits 3
Students will work at least 100 hours in a professional writing situation, such as a newspaper, on a schedule convenient to the needs of the business or office and the students' own course work. The writing situation will be selected in consultation with the Language and Literature Department Chair. Students will have opportunity to observe and participate in all facets of the business. A supervisor in the business situation will agree to serve as editor, instructor, and supervisor, and be approved by the Language and Literature Department Chair. Credit and grade will depend upon the completion of the hours in a dependable, professional manner as verified from the supervisor to the professor.

ENGL4270W: Minority Voices in American Literature

Credits 3

A course studying the literature of American cultural minorities. Course content may be either multi-cultural or monocultural. May be repeated for credit. This course fulfills the general-education "W" requirement and fulfills a General Education Cultural Competency (CC) requirement.

Prerequisites

ENGL1040 or HNRS2560 with a grade of C- or better.

ENGL4980: Senior Seminar

Credits 1
A review of the English program and a commencement of a lifetime of independent reading and thinking. This course meets the university general education requirement for a capstone course. Required of all majors in the English department.
Prerequisites
Senior classification.

FREN1010: Elementary French

Credits 4

For students who have less than two years of high school French. These courses are designed to be taken in sequence. Objective: to help students acquire an active command of the four basic communication skills (speaking, oral comprehension, writing, reading) in French as well as an awareness of how French language and culture are intimately intertwined. 

FREN1020: Elementary French

Credits 4

A continuation of FREN1010. For students who have less than two years of high school French. These courses are designed to be taken in sequence. Objective: to help students acquire an active command of the four basic communication skills (speaking, oral comprehension, writing, reading) in French as well as an awareness of how French language and culture are intimately intertwined. 

Prerequisites

FREN1010, or equivalent.

MDLG1094: Topics in Modern Language

Credits 1 3
Offered on rotation, introductory modern language topics courses are taught in multiple languages. Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, American Sign, and other languages of particular relevance to the core curriculum may be offered as topics courses. Students will acquire basic vocabulary, sounds, and structures through an emphasis on conversation. Modern language courses also provide an introduction to cultures and cultural studies. May be repeated for credit.

MDLG2094: Topics in Modern Language

Credits 1 3
Offered on rotation, introductory modern language topics courses are taught in multiple languages. Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, American Sign, and other languages of particular relevance to the core curriculum may be offered as topics courses. Students will acquire basic vocabulary, sounds, and structures through an emphasis on conversation. Modern language courses also provide an introduction to cultures and cultural studies. May be repeated for credit.

SPAN1010: Elementary Spanish I

Credits 4

For students who wish to begin the study of Spanish. The acquisition of basic vocabulary, sounds and structures with emphasis on conversation. An introduction to Spanish and Hispanoamerican cultures. Fulfills a General Education Cultural Competency (CC) requirement.

SPAN1020: Elementary Spanish II

Credits 4

A continuation of SPAN1010. For students who wish to begin the study of Spanish. The acquisition of basic vocabulary, sounds and structures with emphasis on conversation. An introduction to Spanish and Hispanoamerican cultures. Fulfills a General Education Cultural Competency (CC) requirement.

Prerequisites

SPAN1010, or equivalent

SPAN2010: Intermediate Spanish I

Credits 4

For students who have had at least two years of high school Spanish or one year of college Spanish. A refinement of basic skills and structure with continued emphasis on conversation and increasing emphasis on composition and reading. Fulfills a General Education Cultural Competency (CC) requirement.

Prerequisites

SPAN1020, or equivalent.

SPAN2020: Intermediate Spanish II

Credits 4

A continuation of SPAN2010. For students who have had at least two years of high school Spanish or one year of college Spanish. A refinement of basic skills and structure with continued emphasis on conversation and increasing emphasis on composition and reading. Fulfills a General Education Cultural Competency (CC) requirement.

Prerequisites

SPAN2010, or equivalent.

SPAN3010: Advanced Conversation and Composition

Credits 3

Extensive conversation with lesser emphasis on composition. Spanish-language media such as television and internet provide or supplement topics for discussion and writing. Counts for cultural or linguistic credit. May be repeated for credit once. Fulfills a General Education Cultural Competency (CC) requirement.

Prerequisites

SPAN2020, or instructor's approval.

SPAN3230: Spanish for the Medical Professional

Credits 3
A study of language, forms and culture for medical practitioners. Useful for students majoring in nursing, biology or chemistry. Basic conversation and communication are taught, along with highly specialized terminology.
Prerequisite Courses

SPAN3240: Spanish-Language Children's Literature

Credits 3
A study of various U.S. and Latin American authors of children's literature in Spanish. The course addresses the cultural and linguistic differences and similarities of Spanish-language children's literature. Various perspectives, genres and literary styles will be explored. In the course, students will examine the nature of language construction and the construction of meaning in the social context.
Prerequisites
SPAN2020, or instructor's approval.

SPAN3310: Hispanic Civilization

Credits 3
Historical survey to the present with focus on varying themes from sociology, politics, religion and literature. The course alternates between a focus on Hispanoamerica and Spain in coordination with SPAN3510 Survey of Hispanic Literature. May be repeated once for credit. Fulfills a General Education Cultural Competency (CC) requirement.
Prerequisites
SPAN2020, or instructor's approval.

SPAN3510: Survey of Hispanic Literature

Credits 3
A survey of Spanish literature from the medieval or colonial times to the present. Includes the genres of poetry, drama, and novel. The course alternates between a focus on Hispanoamerica and Spain in coordination with SPAN3310 Hispanic Civilization. May be repeated once for credit.
Prerequisites
SPAN2020, or instructor's approval.

SPAN3630: Teaching World Language in the Secondary School

Credits 2
Strategies appropriate to this subject field, instructional materials and tools, curricular structure common to this subject in the secondary school. Includes opportunities for students to assist and teach a minimum of 20 hours. (See EDUC3630)
Prerequisites
Junior classification, Program admission required.
Corequisite Courses

SPAN3950: Spanish Field Experience

Credits 1 4
Language and culture field experience in the local community or the international setting. Students who work with predominantly Hispanic clientele, translate for a business, participate or volunteer in Hispanic Community events, or are in other ways using their Spanish may enroll in the field experience for credit. Up to 4 semester credits may be earned through the Spanish field experience. The field experience may be completed over one or more semesters during the academic year, depending on the nature of the experience and subject to approval by the chair of the department.

SPAN4010: Capstone

Credits 1
This course provides students with a context for reflection and self-analysis regarding their educational experience at NNU. The approach in this course to self-analysis and critical reflection is two-fold: 1) students will reflect on their comprehensive educational experience through the lens of the four university outcomes, and 2) students will think about and discuss the integration of their learning with their future, post-university lives. (See CRIM4010, HUMN4010, PSYC4010)

SPAN4970: Senior Thesis

Credits 3
A capstone experience involving the writing of a major research paper under the close supervision of a faculty member. The paper is subject to multiple stages of criticism and rewriting. The Spanish Senior Thesis integrates the study of language and culture with the sociological approach of symbolic interactionism and the works of Blumer, Mead, Denzin, and other contemporary theorists.